3.8 Management and leadership skills

The hard skills of management, as well as leadership, involve those skills that are in control whereas the soft skills of the management and leadership involve those skills, which are not in control. Therefore, hard skills are such skills, which are teachable and are easily measurable. On the other hand, the soft skills of management and leadership are not easily measurable or teachable.

Currently, within the sector of hospitality services, the managers, as well as leaders of the firms possess the following skills:

3.8.1 Management and Leadership Current Soft Skills

Soft skills are different from hard skills, which are directly relevant to the job to which you are applying. These are often more quantifiable, and easier to learn than soft skills (Doyle, 2020). A hard skill for a carpenter, for example, might be the ability to operate a power saw or use framing squares (Doyle, 2021).

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Regardless of the job to which you’re applying, you need at least some soft skills. In order to succeed at work, you must get along well with all the people with whom you interact, including managers, co-workers, clients, vendors, customers, and anyone else you communicate with while on the job. These are the types of skills all employers value (Doyle, 2021).

Examples of soft skills include:

  • Communication
  • Flexibility
  • Leadership
  • Motivation
  • Patience
  • Persuasion
  • Problem Solving Abilities
  • Teamwork
  • Time Management
  • Work Ethic
  • Team Dynamics
  • Strategic mindset
  • Delegation


  1. Communication

Communication skills are important in almost every job. You will likely need to communicate with people on the job, whether they are clients, customers, colleagues, employers, or vendors. You will also need to be able to speak clearly and politely with people in person, by phone, and in writing.

You will also likely need to be a good listener. Employers want employees who can not only communicate their own ideas, but who also listen empathetically to others. For example, listening is a particularly important skill in customer service jobs and GM listening to the guest compliants (Doyle, 2021).

  • Listening
  • Negotiation
  • Nonverbal communication
  • Persuasion
  • Presentation
  • Public speaking
  • Reading body language
  • Storytelling
  • Verbal communication
  • Visual communication
  • Writing reports and proposals
  • Writing skill



  1. Critical Thinking

No matter what the job, employers want candidates who can analyze situations and make informed decisions. Whether you are working with data, teaching students, or fixing a home heating system, you need to be able to understand problems, think critically, and devise solutions. For example, promoting a       teamwork to approach problem solving also using your time wisely. The GM of the hotel assigned crisis management team to respond to the crisis. Skills related to critical thinking include creativity, flexibility, and curiosity (Doyle, 2021).

  • Adaptability
  • Artistic aptitude
  • Creativity
  • Critical observation
  • Critical thinking
  • Design aptitude
  • Desire to learn
  • Flexibility
  • Innovation
  • Logical thinking
  • Problem solving
  • Research
  • Resourcefulness
  • Thinking outside the box
  • Tolerance of change and uncertainty
  • Troubleshooting
  • Value education
  • Willingness to learn


  1. Leadership

While not every job opening is a leadership role, most employers will want to know that you have the ability to make decisions when push comes to shove, and can manage situations and people. The ability to step up to the plate in a difficult situation and to help to resolve it is something employers look for in prospective employees’ Other skills related to leadership include the abilities to resolve problems and conflicts between people, and to make executive decisions (Doyle, 2021). For example, managing projects and customers. Also, the GM lead by examples and listen even in disagreement.

  • Conflict management
  • Deal making
  • Decision making
  • Delegation
  • Dispute resolution
  • Facilitation
  • Giving clear feedback
  • Inspiring people
  • Leadership
  • Management
  • Managing difficult conversations
  • Managing remote/virtual teams
  • Meeting management
  • Mentoring
  • Motivating
  • Project management
  • Resolving issues
  • Successful coaching
  • Supervising
  • Talent management


  1. Positive Attitude

Employers are always seeking people who will bring a positive attitude to the office. They want employees who will be friendly to others, eager to work, and generally a pleasure to be around. Being able to keep things positive is especially important if you’re working in a fast-paced, high- stress work environment (Doyle, 2021). For example, the GM Respect for Others and Commitment to the Job. Also, the GM motives employees by using positive words.


  • Confidence
  • Cooperation
  • Courtesy
  • Energy
  • Enthusiasm
  • Friendliness
  • Honesty
  • Humorous
  • Patience
  • Respectability
  • Respectfulness


  1. Teamwork

Hiring managers look for job candidates who can work well with others. Whether you will be doing a lot of team projects or simply attending a few departmental meetings, you need to be able to work effectively with the people around you. You need to be able to work with others even if you do not always see eye to eye.

Some skills related to teamwork include the ability to negotiate with others, and to recognize and appreciate diversity in a team. Another related skill is the ability to accept and apply feedback from others (Doyle, 2021). For example, the hotel manager fostering a culture of trust and respect.

  • Accepting feedback
  • Customer service
  • Dealing with difficult situations
  • Dealing with office politics
  • Disability awareness
  • Diversity awareness
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Empathy
  • Establishing interpersonal relationships
  • Dealing with difficult personalities
  • Intercultural competence
  • Interpersonal skills
  • Influence
  • Networking
  • Persuasion
  • Self-awareness
  • Selling skills
  • Social skills
  • Team building
  • Teamwork


  1. Work Ethic

Employers look for job candidates with a strong work ethic. Such people come to work on time, complete tasks in a timely manner, stay focused, and stay organized. They are able to budget their time and complete their work thoroughly. While they can work independently, people with a strong work ethic can also follow instructions (Doyle, 2021). For example, the hotel manager fair with employees and customers


  • Attentiveness
  • Business ethics
  • Competitiveness
  • Dedication
  • Dependability
  • Following direction
  • Independence
  • Meeting deadlines
  • Motivation
  • Multitasking
  • Organization
  • Perseverance
  • Persistence
  • Planning
  • Proper business etiquette
  • Punctuality
  • Reliability
  • Resilience
  • Results-orientation
  • Scheduling
  • Self-direction
  • Self-monitoring
  • Self-supervising
  • Staying on task
  • Strategic planning
  • Time management


  1. Team dynamics

The general manager of hotel should take numerous responsibilities; in this way, they ought to be multitasker. The worldwide guest relations, housekeeping, front desk, maintaining, staff development and finances. A manager may further segue from workforce testing to assess on food and beverage level arrangement for a few meetings within the center of hotel’s conference.

  1. Strategic mindset

The manager of hotel is considered as proficient trouble-shooter. They must think of numerous inventive as well as viable answers in a fast-moving culture. They require the ability to be argue by application of numerous common kinds of senses to wrap up their accountabilities. The directors of hotels ought to know math to test finance-based information or data. The manager is the third authorized individual to sign the hotels payable framework.

  1. Problem-solving

A manager of a hotel ought to be people-based person with a few interpersonal levels of ability set in arrange to keep the visitors and workforce happy. The manager helps to awesome as well as register all the guests as well as bargain with issues.

  1. Motivating

Successful executive comes with skilled in methodology to efficiently encourage and inspire the workforces. At the same time, it is correct that workforce is getting salaries, motivation is much higher than just getting a pay cheque. Motivation also based on ensuring employees are identified, appreciated, as well as have a clear direction for high career advancement.

  1. Delegating

Another important feature for successful manager of a hotel is the capacity to share knowledge. The ideal in the sector waste no chance to groom the staff for a long run career in the hospitality sector. Guest constantly challenges are the perfect option to train the staff on efficient problem-solving tools learned from the experience. Free and open exchange of sector best solution is important to the success of any company, mainly those that are people focused.

  1. Decision-making

Training of leadership is crucial is since a majority of people cant take the right decisions. For example, the hotel manager take decisions on business operation and growth

  1. Empowerment

Organization more often than not fall flat since their workforce lack some hard skills. Through a mix of pre-employment screening as well as worker training, those are regularly pretty well focused. It is really common for business to confront disappointment since leadership has actually lacked numerous soft skills. For example, the GM  give employees greater authority and responsibility to take care of the needs of the customer and to provide employees with the means for making influential decisions.

  1. Empathy

emotional intelligence or empathy is another kind of soft skills where a few individuals naturally consist and other must be past of teaching. A individual who is non-empathetic in a manager role can further cause a lot of harm within the work culture. For example, the GM is           encouraging and supportive at the workplace


  1. More Soft Skills

Here are additional soft skills for resumes, cover letters, job applications, and interviews. Required skills will vary based on the job for which you’re applying, so also review our list of skills listed by job and type of skill (Doyle, 2021).

  • Assertiveness
  • Business ethics
  • Business storytelling
  • Business trend awareness
  • Customer Service
  • Effective communicator
  • Emotion management
  • Ergonomic sensitivity
  • Follow instructions
  • Follow regulations
  • Follow rules
  • Functions well under pressure
  • Good attitude
  • Highly recommended
  • Independent
  • Interviewing
  • Knowledge management
  • Meets deadlines
  • Motivating
  • Perform effectively       in         a          deadline
  • Performance management
  • Positive work ethic
  • Problem solving
  • Process improvement
  • Quick-witted
  • Results oriented
  • Safety conscious
  • Scheduling
  • Self-awareness
  • Self-supervising
  • Stress management
  • Team player
  • Technology savvy
  • Technology trend awareness
  • Tolerant
  • Trainable
  • Training
  • Troubleshooting
  • Willing to accept feedback
  • Willingness to learn
  • Work-life balance
  • Works well under pressure


Examples on Soft skills from the industry


3.8.2 Management and Leadership Current Hard Skills

  1. Computer Technology

In today’s world, all employees must possess at least a basic grasp of computer technology, and many companies require candidates to apply for jobs using technology-based platforms (Doyle, 2020). For examples, the GM prepares reports to the owning company

  • Microsoft Office Suite
  • Social media
  • HTML
  • Analytics
  • Pivot tables


  1. Hard Communication Skills

While effective communication is often viewed as a soft skill, there are several ways that your concrete strengths as a communicator can be demonstrated. Effectively showcasing your communication skills can help you stand out from other candidates (Doyle, 2020). The leader and managers in the hotels speaks at least two foreign languages

Take a look at the following examples of hard communication skills you could put on your resume:


  • Foreign language
  • Digital communication
  • Copywriting
  • Examples of Hard Skills


  1. Data Analysis

Data analysis skills are highly valued across a wide variety of industries – not just in finance. The ability to analyze data and then use that information for the benefit of your company is extremely useful.

From a financial perspective, employees who care about the company’s bottom line are highly valued. If you’re good at eliminating waste and can demonstrate you can make the most of the company’s dollar and time, include resource management on your resume (Doyle, 2020).

If you have abilities in these areas, be sure to share that with your prospective employer:


  • Data mining
  • Data presentation
  • Resource management
  • Data engineering
  • Database management
  • Any use of data to explore a problem or decide.
  1. Certifications and Licenses

While they may not be hard skills themselves, certifications and licenses are perfect for proving to potential employers that you possess certain sought-after abilities

If you have any that are specific to the job or industry you are applying to, you should always clearly showcase them on your resume (Doyle, 2020).

Some common types of certifications and licenses include:

  • Learning management systems, such as Blackboard, Canvas, or Eagle
  • Data management systems, such as Colleague
  • Healthcare related licenses
  • Certificates, awards, badges, and industry-recognized credentials


  1. Marketing

The ability to convince consumers to purchase a company’s products or services will always be invaluable to potential employers. After all, success in marketing directly correlates to an increase in revenue (Doyle, 2020).

There are a number of hard marketing skills that have become incredibly sought after in recent years:

  • Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
  • Search Engine Marketing (SEM)
  • Marketing Campaign Management
  • Google Analytics
  • Content Management Systems (CMS), such as WordPress


  1. Project Management

Project management is a profession that spans various industries, including information technology, healthcare, and construction. Because of this, project management skills have become extremely valuable to many employers (Doyle, 2020).

Some hard project management skills include:

  • Agile methodologies, such as Scrum
  • Project management software, such as Trello and Zoho


  1. Design

While being artistically talented is a natural ability, there are certain design elements and tools that must be learned through education or training. As technology has advanced, consumer’s standards for design aesthetics has also increased.

This is both a boon and a curse for all types of designers. While it means your skills are more in demand, it also means there are a number of new tools you might need to learn in order to build a successful career.

Here are some examples of some of the hard design skills most desired by employers:

  • User Interface (UI) Design
  • User Experience (UX) Design
  • Adobe Creative Suite (Photoshop, InDesign, etc.)
  • Digital Product Design Software, such as In Vision and Zeppelin


  1. Mobile & Web Development

Multiple new websites are created every second, and on mobile, over 6,000 apps were released per day in the first quarter of 2018 on Android alone. All of these websites and apps can only be created by people with the necessary mobile and web development skills (Doyle, 2020).

Here are some examples of the kind of hard skills you need to become a successful developer:

  • Software Revision Control Systems
  • Android Development
  • iOS App Development
  • Web Architecture and Development Framework
  • Angular and Node Apps
  1. Network Structure & Security

A company’s data is priceless – if the sensitive data is leaked or stolen due to faulty network security, it could cost a company thousand, if not millions, of dollars. IT professionals who have the skills to protect that data are in higher demand than ever before (Doyle, 2020).

Being a company’s data shield is no easy feat, however, and would require you to learn some of the following:

  • Encryption Algorithms
  • Authentication Systems
  • Risk Assessment
  • Cryptography
  • Virtual and Host-based Firewalls


  1. Office Skills

Essential capability with office software like Microsoft Office, Adobe, Google Docs and any significant industry-specific programs is basic for directors. Besides, depending on the industry, a capability with money related and bookkeeping computer program, information passage, prevalent web distributing stages and HR and planning programs may be required

  1. Technical Writing

Managers may communicate objectives and enlightening to workers, make training materials, record and document imperative forms, produce product and service depictions and hand-off office and venture statuses to upper administration. All require clear  concise proficient writing abilities , as well as communicating complex forms and methods in writing.

  1. Information Technology

IT plays a critical part in many companies’ operations nowadays; subsequently, having a working information of IT essentials may be accommodating.

  1. Project Management

Management may involve overseeing employees throughout multiple stages of one or more projects, making the ability to coordinate activities and monitor progress toward specific goals useful. Even those not working directly in project management roles should understand the basic processes and resources required to plan and execute a long-term project.

  1. Data Management and Analytics

Efficiently and accurately gather information relevant to the continued operations of a business, appraise the data for specific trends or potential issues and hand-off discoveries to upper management. Depending on the position and industry, managers may be anticipated to be recognizable with particular information collection and analytics apparatuses and program (American Interconversion College, 2020).

All departments in Sheraton hotel work on the automated control system

  1. Examples of Hard Skills

Some of the most in-demand hard skills include:

  • Bilingual or multilingual
  • Database management
  • Network security
  • Statistical analysis
  • Data mining

The following are examples of some of the hard skills required for different occupations.


  • Accounting
  • Administrative
  • Analysis
  • Analytics
  • Automotive
  • Banking
  • Bookkeeping
  • Carpentry
  • Computer
  • Construction
  • Data
  • Design
  • Editing
  • Electrical
  • Engineering
  • Financial
  • Hardware
  • Healthcare
  • Information Technology
  • Languages
  • Legal
  • Manufacturing
  • Math
  • Mechanical
  • Medical
  • Nursing
  • Optimization
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Pipefitter
  • Plumbing
  • Project Management
  • Programming
  • Research
  • Reporting
  • Science
  • Software
  • Spreadsheets
  • Teaching
  • Technology
  • Testing
  • Translation
  • Transcription
  • Word Processing
  • Writing


Examples on Hard skills from the industry



These skills make the leadership style simpler and superior conjointly successful in terms of choices and issue fathoming, so the leader or manager will select through these skills the leading implies to solve problems and make decisions that make the company the best and the primary within the market, but within the nonattendance of these skills was not able Both the leader and manager know of making the decision accurately and tackling staff problems appropriately driving to the organization’s failure and financial loss. Moreover, performing particular tasks will be less demanding, easier and more efficient.

3.8.3 Future Soft Skills for Leaders and Managers

  1. Diversity/ Inclusion

An awareness of diversity and inclusion extends far beyond the internal work. Diversity and inclusion also encompasses customers, suppliers, and other outside resources. In addition to ethnic and cultural differences, there are also generational differences and gender to consider. True diversity must include those both inside and outside your business structure. Diversity and inclusion in a workplace or organization brings many advantages including increased creativity, productivity and problem solving. Enhanced communication and an expanded market share are also real benefits. Inclusion adds value to employees that leads to retention and increases the ability to attract top talent from many resources. Sheraton hotel employed staff from different cultures and different generations.

  1. Setting Up Recognition Program

Recognition programs within an organization acknowledge the individuals and teams that consistently contribute to your organization’s success. Setting up an ongoing recognition program that honors, and thanks loyal staff and team members increases overall job satisfaction. Encourage team leaders to acknowledge contributions from individual team members on a regular basis with a word of thanks, or repeating an encouraging comment made by a satisfied customer. Including an unexpected thank you to those working behind the scenes should also be a part of any ongoing recognition programs you develop. Sheraton hotel employs different loyalty programs and monetary schemes.

  1. Executive Coaching

Executive coaching is a relationship that provides motivation and inspiration to make changes that transform employees and those around them to obtain optimal results personally and professionally. In supporting growth and change both the individual and organization benefits. Ideally, executive coaching helps leaders and those with leadership potential to examine possibilities and transfer their discoveries to move themselves and the organization forward. Sheraton has a development and training programs for the staff starting with induction and orientation to managerial development programs.

  1. Recruiting Effectively

Recruiting includes the capacity to effectively distinguish, pull in and hire talented people with the potential to move your organization towards fulfilling your goals. Typically accomplished through focused on advertising and focused meeting of perspective candidates. Consider counting a clear mission statement as part of your recruitment promoting. This is often likely to pull in those with the ability and crave to ended up a part of your mission to move your organization forward. Clear job descriptions and skills lists assist help narrow the field of candidates.

Leaders must not only evaluate, spur, empower, and discipline workers but moreover construct teams, resolve conflicts, and develop the organization’s desired culture. Understanding how to impact individuals and accommodate their needs is a basic component of leadership, which all as well numerous companies neglect when they essentially put somebody with the foremost technical skill in a position of authority. Soft skills development is regularly a key component of leadership preparing, and training

Leaders and managers with great soft skills tend to have solid situational mindfulness and enthusiastic insights that permits them to explore difficult working situations whereas still creating positive comes about. This is often particularly vital for authority positions since great administration is more around overseeing individuals and directing their endeavors toward a craved result instead of bringing any specific specialized aptitudes to bear.

Another good thing about delicate abilities within the work environment is that they offer assistance individuals to adjust to changing circumstances. Being able to communicate viably amid a time of vulnerability or collaborate with others when arrangements aren’t instantly self-evident is tremendously imperative whether somebody is in a leadership position or not (Best Colleges, 2017).


3.8.4 Future Hard Skills for Leaders and Managers

According to Khatib (2020), the most want hard skills for the future are

  1. Blockchain expertise

Cryptocurrency mining and associated skills are not yet common but for those who have it, it’s immensely valuable. To build your blockchain skills, you’ll also need a solid base of coding and software development skills.

  1. Cloud Computing

As network and internet technology has advanced, more and more businesses have turned to cloud computing as a convenient data storage and management solution. This means that people who have the skills to build and manage cloud networks are in high demand (Doyle, 2020).

The following are some examples of the kind of hard skills employers look for when hiring cloud computing professionals:

  • Cloud Architecture
  • Storage and Data Management
  • Networking Communication
  • Cloud Middleware Technologies
  • Cloud Applications, such as JSON, Rest, and RPC


  1. Artificial intelligence

Machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) are increasingly being used for business analysis, predictive algorithms, and metrics, or interacting with customers.  Data analysis skills are also a valuable starting block if you’re interested in building your AI skills.

AI software worldwide is forecast to grow from $10 bn in revenues in 2018 to $126 bn by 2025.

  1. UX design

User experience (UX) happens when you use an app, especially when it’s bad, or slow, or clunky. With so much of commerce and business conducted via online platforms, those who can design and refine a good UX are a hot commodity for most companies.

  1. Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate marketing is rapidly rising as a must-have hard skill. Affiliate marketing leverages company partnerships or influencers that are hyper-targeted to a particular audience.

  1. Sales

Who doesn’t need sales experience? Those who can effectively relate to customers, manage a sales team, understand the sales funnel, and sell into the highest levels of the business, are in demand now and forever.

  1. Video Production

Consumers have an insatiable appetite for video content, so it makes sense that video production continues to be a priority for companies. Cisco estimates that video will account for 82% of global internet traffic in 2022, up from 75% in 2018.

  1. Writing Skills

A solid grasp of writing techniques will give your career a boost if your job requires any sort of writing (quarterly reports, onboarding documents, presentations for clients, sales pitches, etc.).

Skills include note-taking, letter and email writing, business writing, creative writing, SEO, and others.

  1. Digital literacy

Up to 84 percent of employers plan to swiftly digitalize work processes in the near future, with a fair number intending to use digital tools to connect employees and bridge divides caused by COVID-19. Over time, we’ve also seen many once-futuristic technological concepts – such as AI, machine learning, and virtual reality – grow in adoption, or become mainstream, and the world is currently witnessing a rapid rise in the demand for cobots (collaborative robots), which will see humans increasingly working alongside smart machines.

Within the context of Sheraton hotel and the overall sector of hospitality services, the required future leadership and management skills incorporate the marketing skills, technical skills, solid collaboration skills, emotional intelligence and differing qualities management skills. The marketing skills are exceedingly imperative to the service sector since on the off chance that the managers and the leaders of the hotel service industry will have the marketing skills, only at that point they will be competent enough to help the sales group of the firm and they can attain these skills by learning distinctive speculations related to marketing and psychology of the buyer. Technical skills are essential for the managers as well as leaders as the upcoming era will be profoundly technical, subsequently, in order to be consistently competitive, the managers and leaders will be required to be technically mindful. They can attain these skills by preparing (Johansen, 2012).


Besides, it is fundamental for the managers as well as leaders to have skills of solid collaboration as when the workers of the firm work in collaboration, they deliver more effective results. Solid skills of collaboration can be attained by the leaders and managers of the hotel service sector by really working in collaboration and by learning the hypotheses related with the positive results of collaboration. In addition to this, it is vital for the leaders as well as managers of the hotel service sector to achieve long term skills of emotional intelligence. When the managers and leaders will have the skills of emotional intelligence, these skills will empower them to get it to the emotional expressions of the workers which would inevitably make the leaders and managers aware of how they can motivate their employees to attain productivity.

Finally, as there are people belonging to different backgrounds and societies working inside the same organization and teams within the overall segment of hospitality service, hence, it requires for the managers as well as leaders of the hotel service industry to accomplish long-term skills of diversity management in order to be competent of managing the different workforce of the firm for assisting it in accomplishing its extreme objectives.

Examples on Hard and Soft skills from the industry

3.8.5 Future Skills Achievement


  1. Self-driven Development

A successful leadership development program begins with onboarding talented new hires. When new  talent is brought into the company, the organization should already have a development plan and process in place that employees can engage with and begin to plan their own career paths. Personal assessments and development plans are excellent resources that enable employees and employers to gain mutual insight into the employee’s best fit at the organization, and to take steps toward developing the skills and experience needed to fulfill advanced leadership roles in the future. Career development programs are ideal for facilitating employee development plans and assessments, and in combination with mentoring programs, significantly contribute to increasing employee engagement and improving retention (Insala, n.d).

  1. Mentoring and Coaching for Leadership

Retention is crucial to leadership development efforts – employers need to keep employees long enough to develop leaders who understand the organization’s culture and processes. Having a well- developed mentoring program improves retention from onboarding onward by providing employees with the guidance and support they need to develop their talents and experience with the organization. When mentors provide structured feedback and notes on the progress of their mentees, employers gain significant insight into the development and leadership potential of their talent (Insala, n.d).

Integrated mentoring and coaching programs enable employers to identify, select, and develop high- potential employees as suitable candidates for leadership succession. Career development, mentoring, and coaching programs can all work in tandem to provide employees with the resources to drive their own development, the guidance and support in developing their talents and expertise, and the proper coaching to become exactly the kind of leaders’ employers need (Insala, n.d).

  1. Facilitate Leadership Development with Technology

Every leadership development strategy should be supported by the organization’s entire talent development strategy. Integrated talent development software facilitates leadership development from the time a new hire is on boarded, continuing through the development process, and ultimately filling crucial leadership roles. Employers and employees can utilize online software solutions to mutually benefit from a well-planned leadership development process


To conclude, the future skills can be attained by learning, teaching, and training, experience, working in conjunction with the workers, analyzing their emotional actions and learning the hypothesis related psychology of human emotions. The skills can be attained also by realizing and respecting the contrasts of each of the person having a place to distinctive culture or background (DeRue & Myers, 2014).


3.8.6 Leadership Skills and Competencies in Times of Crisis


As shown in Table 2.1, the leadership competencies and skills in crisis management are following:


Functional Competency



3.8.7 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Current and Future skills


Advantages: the skills had by the leader and management are exceptionally vital since they upgrade the method of solving problems, persuading workers, spreading of inventive thoughts, which in turn increase efficient productivity. Senior leadership that values employees and workers having opportunities to lead ventures themselves are two of the greatest non-financial motivators that move forward with employee engagement at work. Moreover, improve customer service and customer fulfillment. Increment of sales through negotiation skills and construct a more grounded team since they are able to collaborate in expansion to improve worker retention. Leaders too will be able to share thoughts effectively among one another and energizes their group towards the target and makes them interactive and more communicative. Also, great co-ordination and interaction is kept up between the team members.

Disadvantages: It takes time to appear their benefits and really pay off. Moreover, some of the time these skills utilized in an ineffectual way, which regularly doesn’t do sufficient to develop potential leaders’ people strengths. Too, It takes cognizant exertion, continuous practice, and a commitment to self-development to move forward with your soft skills. In addition, the skills will be exclusively to the managers and leaders, which does not offer inventiveness to the employee.

3.9 Change Management

For the development of a better working environment for the leadership, it is of great importance for the organizations to prepare their leaders for the challenges that they can face in the implementation of change. For this IHG hotels emphasizes communication and influence. It has been found that the leaders face challenges in communicating the reason for the change to the employees which is vital for the implementation change. The reason being that if the employees are not aware of the clear direction of the organization they become disengaged. The leadership at IHG hotel try to engage the employees to give them a sense of value and care which makes it easier for them to implement the change (IHG, 2019). On the contrary, the leadership of Hilton hotel is more focused towards the navigation of innovation and change. Hilton’s leadership depicts their employees what the organization expects from them and also provide them training for adapting the general instructions to their ken particular behavior. IHG provides Career Insight developmental program to its employees having the potential to progress to the managerial positions. It also offers a leadership program named as leading others to sublet their capabilities and skills to move forward. On the other hand, Hilton and IHG have been offering Management Development Program for the hospitality students so that they can lead towards a managerial position for a long period of time (Hilton , 2019). Also, both hotels were expanded in the cloud-based technology platform, which includes our industry-leading Guest Reservation System, allows us to bring together all our core hotel systems, providing the right mix of technology, data and functionality needed to improve stay experiences and help owners drive revenue and performance.

For the development of a far better working environment for the leadership, it is of extraordinary significance for the organizations to prepare their leaders for the challenges that they can confront within the execution of change. For this IHG hotels emphasizes communication and impact. It has been found that the leaders confront challenges in communicating the reason for the change to the workers which is crucial for the implementation change. The reason being that on the off chance that the workers are not mindful of the clear direction of the organization they gotten to be disengaged. The leadership at IHG hotel attempt to engage the workers to allow them a sense of esteem and care which makes it easier for them to implement the change (IHG, 2019). On the opposite, the leadership of Hilton hotel is more focused towards the navigation of innovation and change. Hilton’s leadership depicts their workers what the organization expects from them conjointly give them training for adjusting the general instructions to their insight parti


On the opposite, Hilton leaders do not only engage in guaranteeing superior work execution in a firm but also involved in driving positive change. This can be precisely what hotel manager did when he took over the leadership of Hilton hotel. Taking a company that was almost entirely made via acquisition, the hotel manager was able to offer leadership, direction, and inspiration required to alter the operations of the hotel (Alexakis, 2011). At that moment, back in 2007, Hilton hotel required a robust revival, and to achieve such a gigantic change was required. Under the hotel manager’s leadership, the hotel was able to convert and got to be a exceedingly competitive player within the hospitality sector. However, looking at it critically, the change did not come out of anyplace; it was all through the successful leadership offered by the hotel manager that it survived through his ability to make team work, bringing the individuals together for a common vision and creating direct communication channels between all employees (Barbra Dozier’s Blog, 2017). But both hotel were shared the guest rewards systems and they have the same cancellation policies in the era of Corona virus.  All guests with reservations for arrival on or before April 30, 2020, will be allowed to change or cancel without charge. This includes the advance purchase rate and other prepaid reservations.

Moreover, five stars hotel around the world have the similar concept in terms of Corona Virus procedures as they are taking a harder look at safety procedures and to up their game.

The IHG Hotels leadership confronted challenges in communicating the reason for the change to workers and IHG Hotels endeavored to communicate with workers to provide them a sense of esteem and adaptability in the work, which facilitates the change of management, whereas Hilton Hotels focus on creativity, innovation and alter as Hilton Hotels depicted what they anticipate from employees with the vital training.

IHG Hotels too given a career development program called Insight for employees who have the ability to apply for managerial positions, develop management for students of the hospitality industry so that they can lead towards an administrative position for a long time.

Hilton Hotels has focused intensely on client service and changed the senior leadership’s work utilizing (transformational leadership), disposing of the hierarchy, driving to direct communication with workers over all levels and staff supporting the hotel’s vision, whereas creating IHG hotels that utilize (transformational administration). Unified by a common culture focused on performance and brand expansion, IHG Hotel was prepared to evacuate classes and duplicate roles, all these changes were not just cost-saving but too improved their alignment.

In recent years, the concept of globalization has driven to the reality that hotels are constrained to employ workers from diverse regions and cultures, IHG and Hilton hotels were able to alter their driving style, they were able to attain the desired change and employees got to be supportive of their vision through communication and rewards framework (IHG. 2019, Hilton. 2019).

This example for students who use restaurants as a service organization

The increase in branches in restaurants needs more staff and better management, so we must work to change the methods of management and leadership to suit the restaurant.

Both MacDonald and KFC restaurant played an important role in development and leadership, when they decided to increase their branches; they should change its management style so that authority would be decentralized and give power to managers, but leaving the strong decisions to the top management.

As for the incentive system, it was the performance in both restaurants, which means what does the best employee is rewarded and given a bonus, and put his image in the restaurant under the name of the employee of the month, to motivate the rest of the staff.

Training: each of them has assigned a special trainer from the same staff that train new employees, and can distribute a booklet on how to use the equipment, and then test the employee.

But there were many differences when the administration changed such as:

In terms of technology: The owner of the MacDonald’s tried to introduce all kinds of technology that works to improve and speed up the service, and insisted on training staff, but the owner of the KFC did not succeed in introducing technology to the restaurant, and worked on the same old system.

As for the expansion: McDonald’s was ranked first in terms of number of branches, and it was on the rise, but  In KFC restaurant has tried as much as possible to work to increase branches but did not make it many.

Creativity and innovation: each of them has created new foods to attract the largest number of customers have done it perfectly, but different in the development of flavors, Mac was focused on Asian flavors and oriental flavors, but the KFC put rice and served with dishes with different flavors

Change Management Examples Page 52 and Change management examples from Crisis Management between two hotels

3.9.1 Change Management Affects Management and Leadership Skills and Styles

Change management provides support to the strategies which are people-centric instead of those which are completely process-oriented. Change management needs careful planning, implementation of plan and involvement of each and every individual who is affected by the change. For this, the managers have to do effective and extensive research regarding the changes and their effect. Along with this, they need to be aware of the problems that can arise during the implementation of the change. Change needs to be attainable, realistic and measurable which means that the management of change help in making improvement in the style and skills of the leadership. The reason has been that the management of change is the responsibility of the management and leadership of the organisation. The managers are required to enable and facilitate the change. They must also have the skill that can help the employees to understand goals, reasons, and ways to respond to the change in a positive manner. Sometimes change needs the leadership to concede the control which might lessen their power within the organisation. The leadership might respond in a behaviour which can expose their struggle of adapting the change. It is important for the leadership not to show reluctance to the change as it can also cause the other employees of the organisation to ignore the change. In order to make successful change management, the leadership at all of the levels needs to show consistency in spreading the message and action (Belias & Koustelios, 2014).

The leadership, as well as management styles and skills, are profoundly influenced by alter management. When a change has happened within the by and large management and forms of the firm, the leaders, and also the managers of that firm, are required to embrace such styles and skills which are empowering them to help their workers in getting themselves adjusted to the change which has been occurred within the organization. For occurrence, if the leaders and managers will not have the technical skills which can be required for the recently received upgraded innovation, at that point the leader or the manager of the firm will be required to have the technical skills (Barbra Dozier’s Web journal, 2017).

Leadership capabilities include the ability of a certain leader to distinguish a problem and make a conducive environment that improves the ability of the organization to overcome such issue. Within the Hospitality industry, Hilton hotels have been for over a decade struggling with different issues, ranging from worker dissatisfaction to over drifted structures. However, instantly the general manager took over the company, a parcel of his leadership capabilities and strategies started to get showed. For instance, within the sector of recruitment and compensation of workers, the common manager was able to embrace a alter within the company’s compensate system. Through his modern motivation methodologies, the general manager was able to effectively ties emolument to diversity measurements. This immediately fathomed the organization’s long battle of worker morale. By guaranteeing that individuals were compensated and rewarded in accordance with their culture and conventions, the general manager was able to bring forward the required motivation within the company. His leadership capability to persuade all his workers, regardless of their culture and religion was exemplary.

Also, another key leadership capability he manifested was the responsibility capability. Accountability may be a major component for the success of any organization. The ability of a leader to utilize the company’s assets well determines the included organization level of success. When the general manager came to Hilton Hotel as the CEO, he immediately set out on a process of doing away with the bureaucracy that was inescapable within the organization. He started by doing away with the company’s bloated structures, and hierarchies. This created a flat organization that was more open and viable. As a result, the operation costs of Hilton came down, in this way saving the company a colossal entirety of money from the operation costs and expenses.

Given examples related to Covid-19 how changed leadership skills and styles reported by Blogger (2020), under Covid-19 I modified my leadership style as “I gave much more into account of the well-being of my colleagues and being empathetic and trying to put yourself in the shoes of your colleagues, I think it was important to react quickly to that and make decisions promptly. And I think I probably turned to a more directive leadership style, perhaps more fiery red in my outlook. I have got some great working relationships with people I’ve never actually met face to face. And when I think about it, I probably spend more time with people in the virtual environment than I ever would have done in a physical one”.


3.9.2 Main Actions Taken in Crisis

The actions that taken by hotels in crisis management as presented in Table 2.1,


3.9.3 How Management and Leadership Skills have Developed in Response to Change


As said already in section 3.8, the current and future management and leadership skills that are pivotal for the service sector have been assessed. However, in response to the change, the aptitudes of authority and administration have created significantly. The managers and leaders of the hotels service sector are required to have the recently distinguished skills which incorporate them possessing digital literacy in response to the increased digitalization of the industry; leadership skills, in order to be able to make the workers able to adjust themselves to the change through right leadership skills for spurring them. In addition to this, most imperatively, the leaders, as well as managers of the industry, are required to be competently aware of the leading practices and principles of the alter management (Hayes, 2018).


Moreover, Management and leadership skills need to be adapted in accordance with the changes taking place within an organization. In this regard, at times, the development of management and leadership skills in relation to change implementation is positive which is keen on gaining support and aid of employees. Other times, it is seen that the skills adopted by leader and manager are stringent and emphasize on application of a change in a rigid manner, thereby affecting the behavior of employees adversely


4.0 Conclusion

To wrap it up, it can be concluded that it is fundamental for the leaders and the managers of the hospitality service sector to have the proper skills and styles in order to be able to form the workers of the firm engaged with its overall objectives as well as goals. Under all circumstances, leadership may be an exceptionally imperative component for the success of a company within the modern day world, particularly with expanded disruptions from technology, globalization, internationalization and competition

5.0 Recommendations

The leader must encourage training and development programs. The firm ought to embrace other improved leadership styles within the confront of change management and globalization.

Moreover, the growth of people capacities may be a fundamental issue in managerial leadership. In fact, employee’s strengths development must be on the mind of all managers and leaders. Managers and leaders must consider the significance of other managerial and leadership skills in a increasingly complex business and unpredictable situation.





Reference list



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Appendix A

Survey questions and consent forms