You are required to answer two essay style questions, one from Section A and one from Section B. Your work should be informed by the learning you have experienced within the taught components of the module, supplemented by reference to relevant published literature (text book and journal articles). Your work will be subject to plagiarism checks though Turnitin so you are reminded that you should synthesise information from sources and express this in your own words in your answers.
1.Critically evaluate the laboratory diagnostic procedures that would be used to differentiate between inherited and autoimmune causes of thrombophilia
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2.Critically review how flow cytometry and molecular methods are used in the laboratory to diagnose a Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia
3. A blood group is confirmed when the forward group (antigens on the surface of red cells) and the reverse group (antibodies in the plasma) satisfy Landsteiner’s Law. Critically evaluate the causes of exceptions to Landsteiner’s Law and explain how patients displaying forward and reverse grouping mismatches are managed.
4.Patient KM is known to be A RhD positive with an Anti-Kell antibody. They are currently undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer. The patient has had previous blood transfusions. A current blood sample indicates that the patient is now 4+ positive in all 3 screening cells indicating that the patient may have developed another blood group antibody. Critically discuss why it is important to test for antibodies in patients previously exposed to donor red cells and explain the investigations that would be used to identify the patient’s new antibody or antibodies. If this patient now requires a blood transfusion, what would be the most compatible and suitable blood product?