# Dependent and Independent Variables

**Question One**

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Order Paper NowThis study examines whether television violence increases aggression in children. The amount of television violence is manipulated to examine the level of violent behavior in children. Therefore, television violence is the independent variable while aggression in children is a dependent variable. Television violence may be measured in terms of the hours spent watching violent content. Aggression in children can be recorded as the frequency of violent incidences.

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**Question Two**

This is a study that aims at predicting whether drinking alcohol will decrease people’s reaction time while driving. The amount of alcohol consumed is varied to determine the effect in the reaction time. Hence, alcohol consumption is the independent variable and the reaction time is the dependent variable (Creswell, 2014). In this case, the levels of alcohol can be measured in terms of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). This independent variable may be plotted against reaction time measured in seconds.

**Question Three**

This study examines if perspective-taking improves with age. There are two variables. These are perspective-taking and age. The age is varied to determine the effect on perspective-taking. Therefore, age is the independent variable while perspective-taking is the dependent variable. Age is measured in terms of years. The dependent variable may be measured using the Self Dyadic Perspective-Taking (SDPT) scale.

**Question Four**

In this study, the researchers predict that pedestrians walk faster on hot days compared to cold days. Hence, the weather temperature is manipulated to view differences in pedestrian speed. Temperature, therefore, acts as the independent variable and walking speed is the dependent variable. Temperature is recorded in degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F). The walking speed of the pedestrians, on the other hand, can be measured in meters per second (m/s).

**Question Five**

The research question, in this case, is whether younger siblings are treated better by their parents than older siblings. The age of the siblings is varied to determine the type of treatment that they get from their parents. Age, therefore, qualifies as the independent variable while the nature of treatment is a dependent variable. The age of the siblings is tabulated in years. The type of treatment can be measured in terms of the number of good gestures extended by the parents to the siblings.

**Question Six**

This study involves regulating the amount of sleep for the participants to determine how such variations affect levels of aggression. Since sleeping time is manipulated by the researcher, it is the independent variable. The outcome or dependent variable is aggression (Pajo, 2018). The researcher measures sleep in terms of hours slept per night. Aggression can be measured in various ways including the frequency of aggressive incidences and the intensity of such acts.

**Question Seven**

The researcher, in this case, wants to know the relationship between classical music and people’s level of relaxation. He varies the amount of time spent listening to classical music. One group listens for one hour while the other sits in a quiet room. The independent variable, therefore, is the time in hours spent listening to classical music. The dependent variable is the level of relaxation measured by heart rate.

**Question Eight**

This experiment assesses the effect of alcohol on people’s sense of balance. The two variables, in this case, are the sense of balance and alcohol. The researcher manipulates the levels of alcohol to evaluate the effect on people’s balance. Hence, the level of alcohol is the independent variable. The dependent variable is the sense of balance. It is measured in terms of how many times the participants stumble outside a straight line while walking on it.

**References**

Creswell, J. (2014). *Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. (4th ed.)*. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN: 9781452226101

Pajo, B. (2018). *Introduction to Research Methods: A Hands-On Approach*. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN: 9781483386959.

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