Describe how the concept of multi factorial etiology relates to the natural history of disease and the different levels of prevention. How should the nurse incorporate these concepts into health promotion of clients in community settings? How should the nurse approach client risk in these health promotion activities?
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Select an infectious disease and research the CDC website for information about the disease, its natural history, presenting symptoms, and outbreak characteristics. Identify an occurrence of the disease by searching the Internet for recent reports of this disease, and compare that episode or occurrence with information from the CDC website. How closely did that outbreak resemble the case definition?
Betty Newman’s System Model is a holistic and system-based approach to nursing (Alligood, 2014). This theory focuses on the response of the patient to environmental stressors. Every patient is viewed as a unique system of factors the respond differently to known, unknown, and universal stressors. Prevention is viewed as the primary intervention. She addresses five subsystems within a person: psychological, physiological, socio-cultural, spiritual, and developmental. There are six steps in Newman’s System Model for the nursing process: assessment, diagnosis, goal setting, plan, implementation, and evaluation. The goal of this model is to have harmony within each subsystem and move toward wellness.
Hettler (1976) created a model of wellness that is frequently used. It includes six dimensions: intellectual, spiritual, emotional, social, physical, and occupational. His theory is that all of these dimensions are interconnected and contribute to healthy living. When all of these dimensions are in line for a person, they will experience optimal wellness.
Both of these models are focused on wellness. Newman’s System Model (2014) and Hettler’s Six Dimensions of Wellness Model (1976) identify areas of a person that need to be fulfilled to achieve this ultimate goal. A practioner may be using Newman’s Model, while another may be using Hettler’s Model. Ultimately the goal is to provide wellness for their patient. Both models look at similar aspects of a patient that lead to the whole being highly functional.