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In responding to you’re the first two peers, offer additional suggestions on the work they chose. Do you agree or disagree with their assessment of the use of musical elements?Michael postThe song I have chosen is Policticians in my eyes by The Band Death.  I have chosen this song as a my choice of The American story due to the style of music. The song written and record in Detroit during the height of Mo-Town death is considered to be one of the first ‘punk’ bands in America. Originally a funk band before changing to a protopunk sound, The heavy guitars taking rifts from the upcoming british rock scene inwoven with the detroit mo-town/funk bass lines and traditional drums, I believe this sound to be american in nature due to it’s melting pot style of various musical influences. James postThe reason why the United States develop a style of music that was different from Europe is due to the Romantic period. A period that lasted around 1780 to 1910 that inspired a sense of nationalism and their own uniqueness based on the types of elements that is incorporated within a music. For instance, in Russia at the time, the harmony element was an element to tackle as Russian creativity was emphasized on the inertia and self-enclosed tableaux in order to create a uniqueness. Compared to western harmony which worked against the idea in order to propel the music onward and shape it (Brown, Final, 422, 432–34).   In terms of what musical elements that create what might be called the “American” sound, it think it’s the emphasis on the harmony element taking the lead that makes American sound more distinct when compared to other western counterparts such as Great Britain. While at the same time, not being over constantly over the top and keeping a low but free flow in a sense. For instance, the United State National anthem starts low with the harmony varying a little from time to time until the climax. While not a song from the time period, another song I think fits the bill is a song called ‘Take Me Home, Country Roads’ by John Denver which also seem to displays similarily. RESPOND TO STUDENT POST IN 100 WORDSREGINA POSTHello everyone. 1.Provide an overview of the biological, psychological, sociocultural theories surrounding the causes of substance use disorders.Biological theories suggest that brain chemistry, brain structure, and genetic abnormalities cause behavior (Horvath, Misra). This basically means we are born with substance use disorder already in our DNA. Psychological theories claim that addiction is caused by abnormalities or ‘Psychopathology’ that manifests itself as mental illness, that people learn unhealthy behavior in response to the environment, and that peoples thoughts and beliefs create their feelings in turns determines their behavior (Horvath, Misra).Sociocultural theories state that cultural standards of a society and the negative effects of culture and society on individual behavior causes addiction (Harvath, Misra).  2.Next, select one of the theories (biological causes, psychological causes, or sociocultural causes) and defend and support how the selected approach can explain why people use psychoactive drugs, such as the individual in this week’s case study.I chose psychological theory. This states our environment affects us. I think that this is true. If a person grows up around drugs and alcohol it becomes normal to them. They are more likely to start using themselves as teens or later on in life. The same is if there is alot of drug activities in their neighborhood where its across the street or on street corners. Peer pressure also plays a role in drug and alcohol use specially for teens who want to fit in with certain people or groups.    3. Based on the selected cause, explain why it is difficult for a person to stop the drug or alcohol use and addiction.Addictions exert long and powerful influence on the brain that manifests in three distinct ways. First craving for the object of addiction, second loss of control over it’s use and finally continuing involvement with it despite adverse consequences (Harvard health). When using drugs it makes a short cut so to speak to the reward system part of the brain which releases a lot of dopamine. Since addiction is learned and stored in the brain as a memory, recovery is a slow and hesitant process in which the influence of those memories diminishes (Harvard health).  Basically since it is learned a person needs to retrain and start to think differently in order to stop use. Back in the 1930’s it was believed that addiction was caused by addictive behavior that the person had no self control, will power and was flawed. Today we recognize addiction as a chronic disease that changes both brain structure and function (Harvard health).  For these reasons it is hard to stop use of alcohol or substances. MANDY POSTWhen treating substance use disorders, it is important to look at several factors: biology, psychology, and sociocultural status. There are essential elements to each of these areas that contribute to addictions. For example, according to Harvard Health (2011) in twin studies, addiction is highly inheritable, with 40-60% of susceptibility to addiction being hereditary. In the case study of Ellis, the opioid substance user, he grew up in a home with an alcoholic which means that there is a higher probability that Ellis would become an addict himself as an adult, which he did (, n.d.). Psychological elements of addiction include how the substance is being reinforced, and whether there are any comorbid mental disorders (Harvard Health, 2011). In Ellis’ case, the alcohol and light drug use increased to him becoming a heroin addict. This probably occurred as Ellis began needed more and harder substances to obtain the same high or reward from the brain’s pleasure center (, n.d.; Harvard Health, 2011). The third factor to consider is the sociocultural aspect of substance abuse. This takes into consideration the social status, the financial status, and the support systems of the individual (Durand & Barlow, 2013). In Ellis’ situation, he grew up with an alcoholic father and a passive mother (, n.d.). This situation left little in the way of a positive support system and as he grew, his need for substances increased which made his financial status decline. With this decline comes other psychological issues such as anxiety and depression.•Next, select one of the theories (biological causes, psychological causes, or sociocultural causes) and defend and support how the selected approach can explain why people use psychoactive drugs, such as the individual in this week’s case study.According to Durand and Barlow (2013) the psychological dimensions of addiction can include both positive and negative reinforcements, and cognitive factors. The idea is that if the addiction is being positively or negatively reinforced people are more likely to decide to continue with the addiction (Durand & Barlow, 2013). For example, if a person receives some kind of pleasure reward from doing a certain drug such as a high, they will be more likely to continue with this behavior. This is an example of positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement involves removing something to keep the behavior. For example, if a person is in pain, then they will take narcotics to relieve this pain, if the narcotics help, they are more likely to use these narcotics in the future.One psychological theory about addiction is referred to as psychopathological model of addiction. This model sees mental disorder as the root cause of addiction (Horvath, Misra, Epner, and Cooper, 2015). These mental disorders can include mood disturbances, cognitive difficulties, or other mental illnesses (Horvath et al., 2015). In fact, around half of the individuals who are seeking addiction treatment also have another significant mental disorder (Horvath et al., 2015). It seems clear that mental disorders have some influence on addiction.The psychological theories of addiction seem to help explain Ellis’ situation. He began using drugs at an early age, and as he grew he used harder and harder substances (, n.d.). This could have indicated that there is another mental disorder that needs to be addressed such as depression. Therefore, further testing should be done to help Ellis completely. Also, to keep the same level of positive reinforcement, Ellis needed to use higher quantities of drugs. This led him down a path where nothing but this positive reinforcement was as important to him.•Based on the selected cause, explain why it is difficult for a person to stop the drug or alcohol use and addiction.Based on the psychological theories and the psychopathological model of addiction, it is difficult for Ellis to cease his drug use. If he is indeed suffering from another mental disorder that is untreated, he is essentially fighting two forces that are pushing him towards seeking reinforcement. For example, the substance use disorder causes him to seek drugs as positive reinforcement to his brain’s pleasure center, while he could be simultaneously using the drugs to rid himself of other symptoms of mental disorders. Essentially attempting to numb the pain of other psychological factors which is a form of negative reinforcement. This dual situation makes it very difficult for Ellis to not only seek help for his addiction, but also to maintain recovery. Jasmine postI agree with the changes. I don’t believe there is any possible way someone of another heritage can come to America and not adopt American ways. I also believe that it is necessary for them to adopt certain ways so they can live comfortably here in American. It would be hard to try living the way that they live in their country over here in America because a lot is different here and it would be hard to adjust to our ways if they don’t want to adopt some of our ways.MARCUS POST Cultural pluralism believes that all ethnic and national minorities deserve the freedom to follow their own cultures within a dominant society, while, at the same time, contributing to society as a whole. Basically, this means that different cultures should peacefully coexist with each other. The melting pot theory advocates a blending of all cultures to form a resultant, homogeneous culture, which is unique and different from all the original cultures. Cultural pluralism is often compared to a bowl of salad or a mosaic. Just like a bowl of salad is not homogeneous, and each of its ingredients retains its character despite contributing to the overall flavor, a pluralistic society shows the contribution of different cultures, which maintain their individuality. A melting pot, like its name suggests, is compared to a metallurgical melting pot or boiling stew. Just as meat and vegetables completely lose their identity after boiling, and form a new substance called a stew, and different metals mix together in a melting pot to form a completely new alloy, the melting pot model forms a unique society from the mixture of all cultures, but is similar to none.JUDITH POST I believe we learn from the moment we are born. While children are said to be innocent, they learn from the adults around them. I’m often at my local breakfast spot (my good friend owns a small diner). There is a regular there who brings her grandsons in every few days (along with her ex-husband, their grandpa). One day, the 2 boys (about 4 and 6) were sitting on the stools at the counter, spinning (like all kids do there) and one demanded a glass of water from the waitress (‘Get me a glass of water’). Neither adult with the kids corrected him, and the waitress said, ‘Please may I have a glass of water’ and got the 6 year old water. The 4 year old then said ‘Get me one too’. The grandpa said ‘Don’t get him one, they can share’ to the waitress. WHAT? He never corrected the kids…I was astonished. These kids are not going to learn manners. What else will they learn or not learn?This is how easy it is for kids to act in ways that are then reinforced (for better or worse) by adults. Where did they learn NOT to say please, for example?Class, what are some examples of children and discrimination?

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