How has this content confirmed, challenged or deepened your previous understanding of the topic?

Part 1: (approx. 300 500 words): Briefly summarise your chosen article or chapter. This should include the key conclusions of the article or chapter, and the reasons offered for those conclusions. Tips for Part 1:: Be sure to accurately communicate the authors ideas – this will involve being attentive to their choice of words. Do not read into the authors words what you think they want to or ought to say. Do not attempt to psychologise the author by getting behind the text to their hidden motives. The goal here is accurately and fairly to communicate the arguments (premises and conclusions) of the other person. This section should avoid the use of evaluative language. Part 2: (approx. 1000 1200 words): How has this content confirmed, challenged or deepened your previous understanding of the topic? Give reasons to support your response. Refer to at least two other academic sources to help understand concepts in the chosen article or chapter, explain other relevant concepts which are introduced or demonstrate wider reading. An academic source is a peer-reviewed piece of writing, written by an expert in the field, and made available by a recognized publishing house. This excludes blog posts, social media posts, online dictionaries, online (non-academic) encyclopaedias and general websites (even university and government websites). Examples of non-academic internet sources are Wikipedia,,,, and SlideShare. Examples of acceptable academic internet sources are The Catholic Encyclopedia (, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. If you are not sure about a source, please contact the course coordinator to make sure that you have permission to use it. In general, it is recommended that you begin your research with the resources listed on pages 12-13 below. Tips for Part 2: Begin by briefly giving the reasons and conclusions of your previous/current understanding. These may not be very systematic or clear, but in that case, an important part of reflecting is to acknowledge that. Be sure to regularly refer back to the authors reasons and conclusions when evaluating and discussing. When reflecting on whether or how the article has deepened your understanding, consider questions like, Has the author raised points I had not considered?, Do I have hidden presuppositions which need more thought?, Even though this is a conclusion I agree with, are these reasons valid?, Even though I disagree with the conclusion, does it actually follow from these reasons?, etc. Remember the goal is to arrive at the truth, therefore avoid politicising the issue (e.g., reducing it to party lines or jumping to political consequences), ad hominem attacks (e.g., She is only saying that because she is a) and flights into relativism or scepticism (e.g., It is different for everyone, or, No-one knows).