Compare Independent Variables, Dependent Variables, And Extraneous Variables
1 postsRe: Topic 4 DQ 1
Independent variables are the ones that are manipulated by a researcher, whereas dependent variables are those that are impacted by the manipulation of the independent variables. Extraneous variables are those variables that have an undesirable impact in an experiment. Under ideal circumstances, manipulating the independent variable will cause a change in the dependent variable. All the other variables should not be effected. This, in turn, helps establish a causal relationship. However, sometimes other factors can have an impact on the dependent variables, in addition to the independent variable (Pourhoseingholi et al., 2016). Therefore, the extraneous variables lower the credibility of the experiment results by providing an alternative explanation, which in turn can make it difficult to establish a causal relationship which is often the goal of the researchers. It becomes even more problematic if the extraneous variables change along with the dependent variable, therefore becoming confounding variables. The major ways that researchers try to restrict the impact of extraneous variables are randomizing, restricting and matching. In randomizing, the subjects involved are all exposed to the extraneous variables, therefore creating consistent groups. In restricting, the variations in the extraneous variables are eliminated to prevent changes, and in matching, the subjects are selected in a way the extraneous factors are matched and they no longer remain extraneous factors (Kahlert et al., 2017)
Using 200-300 APA format with at least two references to support the discussion
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Levels Of Evidence Assignment Help
Topic 4 DQ 2
The ‘levels of evidence’ are assigned to studies based on the methodological quality of their design, validity, and applicability to patient care. These decisions give the “grade (or strength) of recommendation” (Nova, 2019). The key is that when doing a search for evidence-based literature, it is important to select the highest level of evidence that is available. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and critically-appraised topics/articles have all gone through an evaluation process: they have been “filtered”. Choosing topics that have been filtered versus unfiltered describes the critical appraisal of that topic. Also, not every clinical question can be answered using the same types of research.
Level I is experimental study with randomized controls with or without meta-analysis and could result in changes in therapy. Level II is quasi-experimental study with or without meta-analysis and can lead to etiology changes. Level III is non-experimental study with or without meta-analysis and can lead to changes of the meaning. Level IV is the opinion of respected authorities and/or nationally recognized expert committees/consensus panels based on scientific evidence which include clinical practice guidelines and/or consensus panels. This level of evidence describes the Clinical Consensus Statement on Tracheostomy care which in my experience, has led to changes in practice. Level V is based on experiential and non-research evidence and includes literature reviews, quality improvement, program or financial evaluation, case reports or the opinion of nationally recognized expert(s) based on experiential evidence and can lead to changes revolving around cost.
Using 200-300 words APA format with at least two references and should not be over five years old to support this discussion
Describe the “levels of evidence” and provide an example of the type of practice change that could result from each.