Low plasma albumin causes edema as a result of a reduction in which pressure?

GCU NUR641E MID TERM1. Low plasma albumin causes edema as a result of a reduction in which pressure? • Capillary hydrostatic • Interstitial hydrostatic • Plasma oncotic • Interstitial oncotic • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 2. An increase of carbon dioxide in arterial blood causes chemoreceptors to stimulate the respiratory centers to: • decrease respiratory rate. • increase respiratory rate. • develop hypocapnia. • develop hypercapnia. • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 3. What is an example of compensatory hyperplasia? • Hepatic cells increase cell division after part of the liver is excised. • Skeletal muscle cells atrophy as a result of paralysis. • The heart muscle enlarges as a result of hypertension. • The size of the uterus increases during pregnancy. •

Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 4. Bacteria that produce endotoxins that stimulate the release of inflammatory mediators that produce fever are called • pyrogenic bacteria. • true bacteria. • exotoxins. • spirochetes. • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 5. Which NSAID is generally considered the safest for use in patients with coronary artery disease? • Celecoxib • Indomethacin • Naproxen • Acetaminophen • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 6. Cell wall inhibitors include all of the following except • penicillins. • cephalosporins. • carbapenems. • tetracylclines. • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 7. In the immediate postnatal period, infants lose approximately 5% of body weight due to • loss of body water • inability of the body to digest nutrients • hemolysis of red blood cells • poor sucking reflex • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 8. Heparin exerts its therapeutic action by: • upregulating the activity of one of the body’s natural anticoagulant molecules, antithrombin III. • deactivating calcium-dependent clotting factors. • inducing prothrombin formation. • inducing the formation of fibrin. • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 9. Pulmonary hypertension: • shows an enlarged pulmonary artery. • involves deep vein thrombosis. • shows right ventricular hypertrophy. • Shows an enlarged pulmonary artery and right ventricular hypertrophy. 10. Which of the following factors do not influence bioavailability? • First-pass hepatic metabolism • Solubility of the drug • Bioequivalence • Chemical instability 11. Which of the following is true regarding prodrugs? • They are affected considerably by renal function. • They are better than amateur drugs. • They are designed to overcome undesirable properties of an active drug. • They may be more effective in patients with liver dysfunction. 12. When looking at arterial blood gas readings, you discover the following: pH 7.26, pCO2 56, HCO3 24. What condition are you dealing with? • Respiratory alkalosis • Metabolic acidosis • Metabolic alkalosis • Respiratory acidosis • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 13. How many months does it take for the newborn to be sufficiently protected by antibodies produced by its own B cells? • 1 to 2 • 4 to 5 • 6 to 8 • 10 to 12 • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 14. What mechanism can cause hypernatremia? • Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone • Hypersecretion of aldosterone • Brief bouts of vomiting or diarrhea • Excessive diuretic therapy 15. In the absence of susceptibility data for an acute infection, the choice of an antimicrobial drug is mostly influenced by • the site of infection and the patient’s history. • the sensitivity report and the colony count. • the source of the infection and the color of exudate. • the host defense mechanism and the immune response. 16. Which of the following increases the potential of cardiac toxicity if taken concurrently with digoxin? • Chloride • Potassium • Sodium • Zinc • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 17.When looking at arterial blood gas readings, you discover the following: pH 7.75, pCO2 24, HCO3 40. What condition are you dealing with? • Respiratory alkalosis • Metabolic acidosis • Metabolic alkalosis • Respiratory acidosis • Question Points: 0.0 / 2.0 18.Which of the following statements is true regarding bioavailability? • It has little effect on the pharmacokinetics of orally-administered drugs. • It is a drug-specific property; therefore, bioavailability will be the same regardless of the dosage form used. • IV-administered drugs have a bioavailability of between 50 and 75 percent. • It is defined as the amount of administered drug that is available to reach the site of action. Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 19.Which of the following drugs are not considered for use with angina? • Beta blockers • Calcium channel blockers • ACE inhibitors • Nitrates • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 20.The primary role of cytochrome p-450, in the liver, is to: • stimulate steroid release as a stress response. • deactivate and detoxify medications and other substances. • produce fibrinogen, prothrombin, and factor V. • eliminate amino acids, forming urea. • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 21.Which antimicrobial should be avoided in children because it is deposited in tissues undergoing calcification and can stunt growth? • Tetracycline • Ciprofloxacin • Vancomycin • Amoxicillin • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 22.Causes of hyperkalemia include: • hyperparathyroidism and malnutrition. • vomiting and diarrhea. • renal failure and Addison’s disease. • hyperaldosteronism and Cushing’s disease. • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 23.Which statement is true regarding the pharmacokinetics of drug administration? • The immature liver or kidneys of the very young may accelerate drug metabolism and excretion. • Medications enter the body in solid form and change into solution for absorption and utilization. • It includes medication absorption, distribution to tissues, metabolism, and elimination from the body. • A therapeutic effect occurs as the medication reaches the target cell. • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 24.A patient with type 1 diabetes has been made NPO after midnight for surgery. Knowing that the patient needs to continue the insulin pump to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis, what would be an expectation of treatment? • Bedtime snack before midnight • Dextrose containing intravenous fluids • 2am glucose check followed by apple juice if needed • Discontinue the insulin pump Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 25.The major therapeutic actions of NSAIDS include all of the following except • reduction of inflammation. • reduction of pain. • reduction of fever. • reduction of clotting factors. • Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0 26. A 68-year-old male has COPD with moderate airway obstruction. Despite using salmeterol daily, as prescribed, he reports continued symptoms of shortness of breath with mild exertion. Which one of the following agents would be an appropriate addition to his current therapy? • Systemic corticosteroids • Albuterol • Tiotropium •

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