Stage IV breast cancer

MSN570 Week 2 Case Studies

A  47-year-old female presents with Stage IV breast cancer.  Today, the PET scan reveals brain metastasis.


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  1. Define proliferation and differentiation and relate these changes to cancer.
  2. Describe invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis.
  3. There are three underlying causes of growth and maturity abnormalities: telamerase, pRB changes and 53 changes.  Discuss these in relation to the patient.
  4. Discuss tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes and DNA repair genes.



A 30-year-old presents with a history of IV drug use, HIV +, and is today diagnosed with  pneumonia.


  1. Does the patient have an acute or chronic state of inflammation? Explain the rationale.
  2. What is the significance of cellular replication in a patient with HIV?
  3. What is viral load and what is the relationship with CD4 T cells?
  4. How did the pneumonia occur?


A 25-year-old male presents with chronic sinusitis and allergic rhinitis.


  1. Define innate vs. acquired immunity.
  2. Define active vs. passive immunity.
  3. Discuss the genetic predisposition of allergens.
  4. Describe the antigen-antibody response.
  5. What is the pathology of sinusitis?


A 40-year-old has an endometrial biopsy report:  benign endometrial hyperplasia.


  1. Explain the diagnosis.
  2. Which cells are implicated in this diagnosis?  Compare and contrast atrophy vs. hyperplasia.
  3. How does dysplasia differ from hyperplasia?
  4. Does hyperplasia lead to neoplasia? Defend your answer.