Teachers’ perceptions of the bullying of learners with special educational needs in Greek secondary schools. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY Research design (Type of study; idea/notion of end product; blueprint/plan) Qualitative = ethnography; action research; case study; historic; phenomenology; narrative enquiry; grounded theory … Quantitative = Survey; experimental work; correlational; causal … Exploratory; descriptive; analytical; explanatory; interpretive; evaluative Approach Qualitative/quantitative/mixed Paradigms (Broader scope than a theory; World view/shared beliefs/epistemology – the way we make knowledge = epistemology & ontology) Positivist = Empirical-analytical Post-Positivist = Interpretivism/Constructivism; Social constructivism; Critical Science; Critical Theory; Phenomenology … Research methodology (How?) Sampling Quantitative = random sampling; probability sampling; non-probability … Qualitative = purposive; snowball; convenient, criterion … Data collection Qualitative data collection = interviews, focus groups; documents/artefacts; participant observation … Quantitative data collection = Questionnaires, surveys … Data analysis Qualitative data analysis = content analysis; grounded theory; discourse analysis; narrative analysis; conversation analysis; AtlasTi … Quantitative data analysis = Stats – regression … Trustworthiness/credibility (Qualitative) and Validity and reliability (Quantitative) Qualitative = trustworthiness, credibility, authenticity … Quantitative = validity; reliability Conceptual Framework Key concepts and their relationship = reference points to locate research question within current theorising; give structure; concepts that you can use later; alignment of key concepts of study Theoretical Framework Speaks to theories you use later; theories of discipline; anchors research in literature e.g. Systems theory; Vygotsky, Erikson …
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