Theory methods of global affairs study

Pedagogy of the oppressed

The reading answers questions why teachers are termed as narrators. The teacher in the context is the narrating object and the students are listening objects. The teacher describes reality as if it was a prediction, lacking motion and having compartments. He uses new ideas to expound on the topic, which is far from the experiences, students have had. His content is detached from reality; he empties their concrete nature and leaves them hollow. He concentrates with sonority of the words without caring for its transforming power. The teacher forces students to mechanically memorize narrated content making them containers for filling and depositing.

The student receives, memorizes, and repeats. The teacher acts as a banker who stores narrations in student heads. The attitude and practices is a good mirror for a society under oppression. Reasons behind the description are that the teacher teaches while students are actually taught. As a result, it is only the teacher who knows everything while students know nothing. The teacher is the one who thinks on behalf of the students since they only listen to their talking teacher without participating. The teacher is the discipline master to the students since he is the one who chooses and forces them to comply. The content of the program is chosen by the teacher and adapted by the students.

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The hypotheses are Knowledge is a gift owned by them who view themselves knowledgeable over those who know little or nothing. The teacher justifies his existence by terming the ignorance of students obsolete. The author attempts to give the true picture of the teacher while teaching and that of students. Through the teachings and the attitude of the teacher, the author expresses the oppressive nature in education sector. The readings clearly explain why most students are not critical thinkers while outside the world after school. Many of them are left jobless while only a small proportion is employed in white-collar jobs. The oppression in school and lack of participation makes them depend on others to think on their behalf and lead them as they follow.

The lexus and the olive tree

The reading solves questions such as what are the sources of fights and cold war among citizens in the world. It is significant as it helps readers realize causes of fights and importance of globalization. The hypotheses raised are that cold war is caused by poor share of property and selfishness in the world. Globalization is meant to end cold war and uniting all people in the world through the internet. The author’s contribution to the lexus and the olive tree helps readers understand that globalization, which has occurred in the world, has replaced cold war system. The world compromises of microchips, men, women, habits, and traditions.

The world is changing from traditional working through human beings to using Robots to do all work. Today Robots can haul materials on the floor and beep when they sensed human beings near their area of work. The reader appreciates the old olive tree, which resembles old traditions and says that olive trees give locations, identification, nations, tribes, and religion. However when they are excessively owned, they lead to forging of identities, communities and bonds which excludes such people from others. The author comments that cold war came from fight to embrace all riches on earth and their division. He uses the example of Cain and Abel. Cain was the owner of real estate’s (soil) while Abel owned movables and livestock. Abel was killed because of the intense argument to remove his livestock from his estates. They fought over territory.

The author explains that most people do not respect each other and their property. It also meant moreover, separation means uprooting and destruction of each other’s property. Those are among cold wars realized in the world, which are trying to be solved by globalization.

The World beyond Your Head on Becoming an Individual in an Age of Distraction

The author explains that the life today is over our normal ability since human beings have to use their minds to concentrate enough to the changing world of technology. The main question is whether people can comprehend themselves and pay attention to the technology to avoid complains. Digital technologies have introduced use of PIN, which are taken advantage of by more knowledgeable people who intrude in our systems to bring advertisements. They deny us the power to fully own our electronics and instead demand our attention.

The author adds that attention is cultural and dates back to childhood development. Phenomenology is a traditional thought concerned with organization which is a bridge between fields that mutually uncomprehending each other and cognitive and moral psychology. Attention ethics attempts to make sense of qualitative character and takes seriously the first experience in cognitive environment. Attention is driven by set goals or driven by stimulus. The reading is offering insights to people using their digital devices connected to the internet to be attentive to any authentication and intruder alerts and advertisements.

However, they have to adapt to the modern technology. As people battle with paying attention to their favorites they lose, public space required to socialize. Example most young people possessive digital phones and tablets connected to the internet are most times glued to their screens even in public places. They deny other members the opportunity to socialize with them. The author comments that attention that is not tightly held at one place makes the owner feel relaxed and able to encounter many things happening. Besides tightly held attention does not allow the mind to linger making the person tired. Attention is paid according to reality of things focused. The author helps readers understand importance of attention and the ability to focus on what is favorable and leaves less important materials.

The United Nations

The reading raises the question of changes brought by United Nations in U.K. The reading is significant since it creates awareness of the works done by UN to bring a peaceful society. The hypothesis brought includes what is the participation on UN to the world Nations. What changes has it brought in the world. The state is the dominating sector in making decision despite changes in norms, traditions, security, peace, government initiatives, and institutions. The dominance explains that international society has undergone reforms but it has not transformed. Thus, it represents a political anarchy where there is persistence of poverty, abuse of human rights, unfair judgments, insecurity, terrorism, and self-determination.

United Nations aimed at bringing change in rise of new threats, increased role of non-state actors, reformulation of state sovereignty and emergence of single hyperactive power.

New threats have experienced change since political violence has reduced and considered outdated. New actors such as nongovernmental organizations act and engage with United Nations. Advocates of human rights, gender activists, develop mentalists among other indigenous groups have also become vocal and operations as well as important to people

Sovereignty is reduced and distributed among sectors of the economy. Communication and technology have changed. Sovereignty has incorporated human rights to create peace among nations. Sovereign means an authority, territory, independence. UN has increased life expectancy rate by decreasing child mortality, educating children, reducing malnutrition, eradicating small pox, yaws and guinea worm, and polio. As a result, there are healthier people, who have better education and less impoverished who will most likely live in a multiparty democracy. UN has ended all forms of discrimination with special concern to racial discrimination and discrimination against women.


Freire, P. (1974).pedagogy of the oppressed

Friedman, T. (2000).The lexus and the olive tree. Anchor books: New York

CrawFord, M.B. (). The world beyond your head. On becoming an individual in an age of distruction:  New York.

Weiss, T. & Daws, S. (1945). The oxford handbook on the united nations.U.K: Oxford University press.