Cryptography and applications

1.Secret sharing and secret splitting aretechniques that can provide confidentiality without the use of keys.

(a)Explain the concept of secret splitting. In particular, elaborate on the notions of dealer, shares and shareholders. What is a (k,n) threshold scheme, and how does it relate to secret splitting? (7marks)

(b)Shamir introduced secret sharing based on polynomial interpolation.(i)Explain how to use this scheme generically in order to create a secret splitting scheme for n=2 shareholders.(5 marks)(ii)Using the secret splitting scheme designed in the previous question part, share the secret s=dwhere dis the last non-zero digit of your student ID number. Give all the three shares that need to be distributed.(3 marks)

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(c)The goal of a Public Blockchain system is to enable users to anonymously send transactions stored on a public ledger. These transactions can be read by anyone, but cannot be modified once stored. Sketch a security architecture for a multi-blockchain application based on secret sharing, where transactions can be sent using several, different Blockchain systems (you do not have to mention any specific systems). This architecture would provide transaction confidentiality, without the use of encryption. Provide a diagram and a description of the security architecture, without going into details.(5 marks)

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