Excess of filling

A. Which one of the following is measured by the area between the balancing line and

the mass haul curve?

(a) Haul between the balancing points

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(b) Earthwork accumulated upto that point

(c) Excess of excavation

(d) Excess of filling

B. Prismoidal formula yields better results when

(a) there is a large difference between the two end areas of a prismoid

(b) the cross sections are spaced closely

(c) the surface irregularities have been measured in the field

(d) all of the above

C. Define the following:

prism, prismoid, grade elevation, haulage.

D. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms:

(a) Overhaul and free haul (b) Over break and under break

(c) Shrinkage and swell

E. Define a prismoid. Derive the prismoidal formula and state its validity.

F. Derive an expression for the trapezoidal formula for volumes.