Historically, what were considered the causes of psychological disorders, and what are the current perspectives?
● Perspectives on psychological disorders have changed through the centuries. In the past, many “treatments” for psychological disorders were inhumane.
● French physician Philippe Pinel and other reformers worked to improve the treatment of people with psychological disorders. Pinel’s work led to the medical model of mental illness. Use of the medical model has led to successful treatments for many psychological disorders, often involving drug therapy. However, the medical model does not emphasize environmental explanations, overlooking the influence of such factors as stress, upbringing, and personal history.
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● The bio-psycho-social approach to psychological disorders studies both nature and nurture and focuses on their interaction. The biological component of the model includes genetic predisposition, or hereditary susceptibility to a disorder. The psychological component of the model includes thoughts or thinking patterns. The social component acknowledges that social and cultural beliefs can affect even the behaviors and beliefs characterizing psychological disorders.
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