1. Some metaphors for teaching used were:
an oak tree trunk supporting the branches of their students, who will one day become acorns that fall and
become their own oak trees
a metal and classical song fused together, representing the chaos of planning and the beauty of the classroom
activity come to fruition
a fragile dandelion with the potential to grow
a tour guide leading the way
a gardener tending and nurturing seedlings
an astronaut taking risks and forging the path
sparking a flame instead of filling a vessel, or creating inquiring minds as opposed to feeding students
2. The metaphors of a gardener and of sparking a flame stood out to me the most, as they reflect my desire to
be a nurturing and supportive teacher who inspires my students to grow beyond the classroom and take
charge of their education.
3. The metaphor of being a tour guide demonstrates a link to the acquisition metaphor, as a tour guide imparts
knowledge for the tour group to absorb. The metaphor of students being a flame sparked by education links
to the participation metaphor, as it indicates a shared and active participation in education that progresses
4/19/2021 [Solved] 64294 – Reflection 11. Some metaphors for teaching used
beyond merely learning content.
4. My teaching metaphor is that a teacher is a map that guides students through their learning, leading them to
exciting discoveries and new adventures.
1-How can theories of learning enhance the understanding of teaching and learning?
Theories learning can enhance education as the teacher becomes more aware of the various formats students
can take in and understand learning. Through behaviourism for example, students slowly as they grow can
differentiate the difference between effective behaviour (or good behaviour) and non-effective behaviour.
Direct instruction scaffolds students learning but also teachers them how to be clear with their learning and
instructions. As teachers, our aim is to put the student first, and by enhancing our own learning,
understanding different theories thoroughly and seeking ways to enable the theories, the student will become
a better learner and more engaged.
2. What type of reinforcement is used in this video? How effective is it?
The type of reinforcement used in this video is ‘positive and negative reinforcement’, a classic way teachers
reinforce good behaviour in the classroom. Positive reinforcement is when a person, typically someone like a
teacher, leader, or parent, will tell another person or child that if they do this behaviour they get this reward.
For example, in the video this was shown by teacher when she told her students if they completed their maths
timetables in under two minutes, there reward would be a pizza party. Negative reinforcement is used to
punish ‘bad’ behaviour, taken certain items away, grounding or as was shown in the video, the teacher took
away fifteen minutes of their recess time because they didn’t finish their work. This type of reinforcement has
been used over the 20th century and still today. Before it was done more harshly however, with negative
reinforcement done by using a ruler or hitting a child.
3. List three effective teaching strategies teachers can use in a behaviourist classroom
In a behaviourist classroom, three effective teaching strategies that can be used is the positive and negative
reinforcement. This can be done through sticker charts, prize boxes, watching a video or reading a book.
Direct instruction is the second one that I deem to be effective in the classroom as the instructions and
objective are clearly stated to students and will be easy to understand and follow. the third teaching strategy
that can be used is Thorndike’s trial and error learning which i believe to be one of the most important.
Teaching students that you need to try and try again until you get it right, though they might fail at first that is
okay as well. This teaches students problem solving skills and critical thinking as they can tackle one specific
task, eight different ways till they get it right.
4. Give two examples of direct instruction in the classroom
Examples of direct instruction in the classroom can be through ‘classroom rules’ that are short and concise
and pasted in an area easily accessed. The rules can be as simple as ‘listening to the speaker’ or ‘hands in our
laps’. A second example of this strategy in the classroom could even be through the format of a video to start
off the lesson. A video can be engaging to students, full of different ways we can express tones and words, as
well as presenting another way to ‘hook’ the students.
5. Should direct instruction be used for the Australian/Victorian Curriculum?
I believe that direct instruction should be used in the curriculum and in some ways it already is. Direct
instruction is a really good method of getting straight to the point with students learning, but also establishing
good critical inquiry, questioning, free reign over their own learning.
6. What is effective pedagogy?
There is no perfectly effective pedagogy in the classroom, but we can try our best by scaffolding tasks
correctly, following the zone of proximal development, use group work, discussions, and letting students
develop self-regulation with their learning. Effective pedagogy can be in the form of relating to students or
getting them to relate to their peers and anyone outside of school. It inspires students imagination,
questioning, different ways of thinking, and perhaps being conscious of the environment surrounding them
1. People can become more independent rather than dependent
2. Everyone is recognised for their own individual traits, likes, dislikes, uniqueness and who they are
3. The classroom environment is very warm and caring compared to what it used to be. Students walk into a
classroom that is open, warm and inviting and feel they belong
4/19/2021 [Solved] 64294 – Reflection 11. Some metaphors for teaching used
1. There is not a lot of information or guidance provided for teachers to help students who do lack motivation
and how we can help them
2.It can be focused on what is affective in the students learning, rather than identifying objective. How does
the student understand? Do they understand deeply? Is it just a curriculum outcome?
3. It can be hard for educators to aide all psychological problems as they do not have all the knowledge, skills
and sometimes extra help that they need.
Can you identify with each of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and which ones have priority?
I am truly grateful to say that I have achieved and/or identify with all of Maslow’s needs. I am quite fortunate
enough to have grown up and still be surrounded by people who have made sure these needs are met.
Personally, the ones that have priority is Physiological – food, water and rest. Not just for myself, but for
everyone. As well as Love/Belonging, to have relationships, partners, family, friends and this may not be a
great amount. Which is okay as it is the quality of the relationships which are important
Your Personal Hierarchy
Personally I find this question hard to answer or create one of my own as I strongly agree with Maslow’s
hierarchy. You cannot have safety, if you do not have food and water. You can not have good relationships if
you don’t have security. How will you reach a sense of meaning or achieve your potential, if your self-esteem
is low and you believe you will not achieve these things?
I believe and agree with this order and that they are appropriately correct.
However I do understand that people will answer this question differently and not everyone will think they
same way I do. It is hard to examine contextual factors as there are many different ones.
What difficulties and potential benefits can you see in trying to implement the principles of progressive
education in mainstream classrooms?
Progressive education can be a difficult thing and a beneficial thing. IT can be perfect for the student who is
innately self-driven, easily motivated, likes to control their own tasks. But for some students who need a lot
of motivation to do their work, it is hard for an educator sometimes to be hat person. That is part of the big
debate of progressive learning, there are all different types of students who get motivated or unmotivated in
different ways. Simply leaving it broad, can be quite hard.
It also is puzzling when applying it to different countries, cultures, areas within the country. Not everyone has
the same resource or platform to learn, though it is a birth right that they deserve it.
Despite the few limitations I have suggested, a positive aspect is that there is no structure. It is flexible, can
be applied to different classrooms, stretched and pulled in different ways that work for that particular
classroom and school. It is also very group based and promotes team work, learni