Quality Of Care: Patient Safety

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Definition

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), one in ten patients is usually harmed during the healthcare process. This results in millions of incidences of patient safety annually as well as billions of US dollars in cost per year. Patient safety is an integral quality of care issue for everyone in healthcare as it promotes safer and better healthcare. The WHO further defines patient safety as the prevention of errors to the patients, which are related to healthcare (WHO, 2017). The simplicity of this definition is not meant to belittle the issue of patient safety, given that it is a discipline in healthcare with a growing body of knowledge. Healthcare errors can be as a result of several factors such as human factors, system failures, or even complexity. Examples of human factors include long working hours of nurses that cause fatigue and even depression, the failure to acknowledge medical errors due to fear of censure, and pressure due to timeframes (Hall, Johnson, Watt, Tsipa & O’Connor, 2016). System failures are as a result of poor hospital organizational structure. A good example of a system failure is an unclear chain of command between physicians and nurses, hence resulting in poor communication between different practitioners. This can result in errors which can jeopardize the patient safety.

 

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History

Patient safety was not a widely considered issue before the year 1999 when a report titled “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System” by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) was released. After that, the media heavily publicized the issue leading to a closer look into patient safety by all stakeholders, to find how to solve the issue. The report by IOM recommended ways to improve patient safety including reporting mechanisms while discouraging blame games in hospitals (Donaldson, 2008). Ever since this report, a lot of studies have been done which resulted in the establishment of Safety I. This standard is, however, being replaced by Safety II to improve on its shortcomings.

How it is measured and monitored

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the US DHHS proposes several measurements and monitoring methods of patient safety including Voluntary error reporting systems, retrospective chart review, automated surveillance, patient reports, and claims data. Furthermore, the Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS) measures and monitors the safety of healthcare delivery systems aimed to reduce error (Hunt et al., 2005).

References

Donaldson, M. S. (2008). An overview of to err is human: re-emphasizing the message of patient safety. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2672/?report=reader

Hall, L. H., Johnson, J., Watt, I., Tsipa, A., & O’Connor, D. B. (2016). Healthcare staff wellbeing, burnout, and patient safety: a systematic review. PLoS One11(7), e0159015.

Hunt, D. R., Verzier, N., Abend, S. L., Lyder, C., Jaser, L. J., Safer, N., & Davern, P. (2005). Fundamentals of Medicare patient safety surveillance: intent, relevance, and transparency. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US), Rockville (MD). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK20489/#!po=92.5000

WHO, (2017). Patient safety. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/patientsafety/en/

 

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Business Ethics Chapter 6 – Employee Responsibilities

Multiple Choice Quiz

 

1

Which of the following aspects of the relationship between Enron’s special purpose entities (SPE’s) and Enron itself is not particularly egregious?
A) Enron had no reason for forming SRE’s other than to create a deceptive impression that it was in better financial shape that it actually was.
B) Hedging risks by entering into agreements with oneself does not lower risks.
C) Underwriting one’s own risks is not underwriting them at all.
D) Using Enron’s own stock to finance the SPE’s provided a very strong incentive for Enron management to keep its stock value high.
E) All of the above.
F) None of the above.

2

Which statement is not true of the agency concept?
A) In actual fact, not all agents are employees.
B) Under the common law tradition of the United States, all employees are treated as agents of employers.
C) The primary responsibilities in the employer-agent relationship lie with the employer.
D) The law has described the employee-employer connection as a master-servant relationship.

3

Select the statement that does not support the narrow view of non-managerial employees’ responsibilities to their employer, the idea that the employer exercises a great deal of control over the nature and terms of employment with very little discretion given to the employee:
A) Employees consent to obeying managers when they take a job.
B) Employees who agree to obey employers are not truly abandoning their own responsibility.
C) The choice of obeying someone’s command or jeopardizing one’s job is a fundamentally coercive situation and, therefore, the consent involved is not fully free.
D) Owners have property rights and have to be protected against the harms they might suffer from employees.

4

Identify the statement that does not correctly present the fiduciary relationship that is said to exist between managerial employees and employers:
A) Managers have special expertise that owners must rely on, so they are given wider responsibilities .
B) Managers are free from close day-to-day oversight by owners.
C) Because managers have greater freedom from day-to-day supervision by owners, they are not generally understood to have a strong fiduciary duty to always act in the best financial interest of the owners.
D) The legal duties of loyalty, trust, obedience and confidentiality are understood to override the manager’s personal interests.

5

Identify the statements that reflect the varied owner interests corporate managers are supposed to serve:
A) Investors buy stock because they believe in the company and its products.
B) Investors are playing the stock for short-term gain.
C) Investors see their stock ownership as an investment in a company and its technology.
D) Investors see their stock ownership as a long-term investment for personal retirement and security.
E) All of the above.
F) None of the above.

6

Which statement describes a managerial action that does not unethically impose costs upon stockholders and other stakeholders?
A) The action imposes unwanted costs on stockholders and stakeholder by giving up some alternatives in favor of others in the interest of maintaining the fiscal stability of the enterprise.
B) A personal interest of a manager hinders the exercise of his or her professional judgment.
C) A portion of some payment is kicked back to the payer as an incentive to make the payment in the first place.
D) Financial advisers receive payments from a brokerage house to pay for research and legal services that should be used to benefit the advisers’ clients, not the advisers’ personal interests.

7

Select the statement that, ethically speaking, best represents a valid concept of what loyalty to a firm means:
A) Loyalty means a willingness to sacrifice one’s own interest by going above and beyond ordinary employee responsibilities.
B) Loyal employees are expected to sacrifice for the firm even though the firm is not necessarily bound to sacrifice for the employee.
C) Since the model of agency law lays a legal duty of loyalty on employees, employees clearly have a corresponding ethical responsibility to be loyal.
D) While a willingness to sacrifice might be a part of loyalty, it would seem that devotion and faithfulness to a common good is both more essential to loyalty and what explains the willingness to sacrifice.

8

Identify the statement that challenges Albert Carr’s analogy that, like poker, business is a game that has its own rules and, therefore, is exempt from ordinary requirements of morality:
A) Carr overestimates the prevalence and acceptability of dishonesty within business.
B) Even if business did have its own set of ethical conventions, that fact alone does not exempt it from ordinary ethical evaluations.
C) There are major disanalogies between business and games like poker that weaken the conclusions drawn from Carr’s analogy.
D) Unlike poker games, individual often have no choice but to participate in business practices.
E) All of the above.
F) None of the above.

9

According to Richard DeGeorge, which statement presents a condition that makes blowing the whistle on a company not just permissible but obligatory?
A) A threat of serious harm exists.
B) The whistleblower has exhausted all internal channels for resolving the problem.
C) The harm to be prevented overrides the harm done to the firm and to other employees.
D) The whistleblower has good reason to believe that blowing the whistle will prevent the harm.

10

Select the statement that is not a criticism of insider trading:
A) The insider benefits inappropriately by buying or selling the stock at a price below or above what the market will demand when the inside information is made public.
B) An insider can benefit by trading on bad news as well as good, and this might be an incentive to work against the firm’s best interests.
C) The insider’s action sends the correct message to the market, reflecting the stock’s true value, moving the market toward equilibrium.
D) The insider’s information is often used without the firm’s permission in a way that harms the stockholder’s interests.

Stress Management & problem-solving strategies

What Other Suggestions Would You Give To Help Angela Manage Her Stress?
  • What problems does Angela appear to have right now, and what problem-solving strategies might Angela use to approach her problems?

The problem Angela appears to have right now is she is overwhelmed and stressed at work, and it is following her home. Angela also started going to school, which is (or can be), a huge stressor all by itself. It really does not help that the person she brought in to help take the stress from her is making her work life harder. She is also developing some unhealthy habits to cope with stress, which in turn will affect her health. Angela should practice some self-care as opposed to self-destruction.

The problem-solving skills I would suggest using to approach her problem are taking a step back, calming herself, and being open to having a much-needed conversation with everyone around her. “Successful problem-solving in the workplace takes the same tools as it does in every other place: respect, kindness, and honesty (Post, 2010).” I would suggest she implements respect, kindness, and honesty while practicing active listening and doing some team-building exercises. If nothing else, it can boost morale and ultimately boost production.

  • What are some conflict-resolution strategies Angela could implement to resolve her issues?

Some conflict-resolution strategies Angela could implement to resolve her issues with the employees’ making errors and shipping delays, is approach the employees with some humility. Get down to the root of the issues. They are people just like her with their own stressors. The issue may be the employees are rushing through orders to meet a deadline and making silly mistakes. They can hire a few extra people to help take the load from the other employees or stretch the deadline.

To reach a resolution with her supervisor she should sit down with him and “use this sentence to open up discussion: “I feel (emotion) when (action or words said) because (unexpected result) (Woodfill, 2009).” It is super important, when having a conversation to resolve conflict, that you do not place blame on people. Using “I feel” can help you appropriately express how you are feeling and how certain actions are affecting you without pointing the finger. People are much more receptive when they do not feel attacked.

To reach a resolution at home I would suggest Angela sit down and just let her family know what is going on. Be open and honest with her partner and child. It is way easier said than done but Angela needs to leave work life at work and home life at home. She works to live, not lives to work. I would suggest they schedule out some family time once or twice a week where they can reconnect as a family or at least as a couple.

  • What assumptions is Angela making about her new supervisor?

The assumptions Angela’s making about her new supervisor are that he does not respect her, and he is constantly telling her how to do her job. I feel like she thinks he is trying to undermine her when, in fact, he may just be trying to make suggestions to help make the job easier for her. I know I can be stubborn and set in my ways and that makes it hard for me to be receptive to other ideas. I do not usually feel undermined, but I can understand why someone would. I strongly believe respect is earned and not given. The new supervisor could feel like Angela does not respect him; therefore, he is not going to give the respect back. Especially after Angela lost her temper at the meeting.

  • What role (if any) might communication (or miscommunication) play in this scenario?

Miscommunication and communication are playing a role in this scenario. Angela may not be communicating properly and that leads to miscommunication. Not only that but, more than likely, she is not listening to people effectively. Angela is incredibly frustrated. For me, it is so easy to get stuck in my own head. When that happens, nobody can tell me anything. Also, when I am angry or stressed out, I have a tough time expressing exactly what I am trying to say. I have to walk away from the situation, calm down and think about what I am going to say next. I usually write it down so I can be clear and concise. That helps me from saying something I would regret.

  • What suggestions can you give Angela for managing her stress?

Some suggestions I would give Angela for managing her stress are, if she can afford it, taking some time off work to reset and relax. I would also suggest Angela started doing some daily self-care. For example, running or meditating. Meditation is the practice of an extended state of contemplation for achieving calm, psychological balance, and well-being (Longe, 2022).” I would recommend she meditates in the morning to start her day off right and after work so she can leave work at work and enjoy her family. Running can help get some anger and stress out while increasing her energy levels. The last thing I would suggest is making sure that she starts eating well again. It is so important to properly nourish your body. It will help boost her energy, keep her brain from getting “foggy,” and she will start to sleep better. It may also be a good idea for Angela to seek professional help from a counselor or therapist if she continues to have a hard time managing her stress on her own. They will be able to give her some coping mechanisms to help her in a situation where she would normally lose her temper.

Meditation. (2022). In J. L. Longe (Ed.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology (4th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 774-778). Gale. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX8273700515/HWRC?u=lirn55593&sid=bookmark-HWRC&xid=d68c21f2Links to an external site.

Post, P. (2010, April). Taking care of business: how to handle tricky issues on the job. Good Housekeeping250(4), 143+. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A224775997/PPVC?u=lirn55593&sid=bookmark-PPVC&xid=215ae896Links to an external site.

Woodfill, W. (2009). Conflict Resolution: Thinking It Through. School Library Journal55(10), 55. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A209901912/PPVC?u=lirn55593&sid=bookmark-PPVC&xid=23ed16ecLinks to an external site.

Benchmark- Personal Worldview Paper

 

As a nurse leader, it is important to understand a variety of leadership models and styles. This will help you adapt to different settings and apply strategies to support and inspire others. It may also be necessary to apply models in different professional settings to satisfy certification requirements. Write a 1,250-1,500-word paper about your personal model of leadership, including the following:

Model of Leadership: Part A

Describe your personal model of leadership.

Compare your personal leadership model to servant leadership, transformational leadership, and at least one other model of leadership.

How does your personal model of leadership prepare you to employ strategies for effectively leading diverse teams and fostering interdisciplinary collaboration as you implement your leadership project?

Personal Worldview: Part B

Describe your personal worldview. Include the religious (Christian), spiritual, and cultural elements that you think most influence your personal philosophy of practice and attitude towards leadership.

Describe how your professional leadership behaviors inspire others.

Use a minimum of three peer-reviewed resources (published within the last 5 years) as evidence to support your views.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:

MSN Leadership in Health Care Systems

6.3: Employ strategies for effectively leading diverse teams and fostering interdisciplinary collaboration.

6.7: Model professional leadership behaviors to motivate and inspire others.

 

Rubric

Rubric Criteria

Personal Model of Leadership

13.5 points

Leadership Model Comparison (B)

13.5 points

Diverse Teams and Interdisciplinary Collaboration

9 points

Personal Worldview

13.5 points

Inspiration (B)

13.5 points

Thesis, Position, or Purpose

6.3 points

Development, Structure, and Conclusion

7.2 points

Evidence

4.5 points

Mechanics of Writing

4.5 points

Format/Documentation

4.5 points

Total90 points

 

NUR 3178 – Assignment #2

Instructions: 1. Read and familiarize yourself with all the Ayurvedic resources in Lesson 2 (Web links, Videos, Journal Articles, etc.) 2. Use the Internet to further explore Ayurvedic Medicine, and answer the following questions: Give an example of how Ayurvedic Medicine can empower patients. Describe the impact that Ayurvedic Medicine can have on the global community. Identify Ayurvedic resources within a specific community. 3. Assignment should be 2-3 pages, including: title page reference page according to APA Writing Style spacing and margin settings (APA Style)

https://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/explore-healing-practices/ayurvedic-medicine

https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/ayurvedic-medicine-in-depth

https://www.verywellhealth.com/what-is-ayurveda-88174

https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?p=HWRC&u=lincclin_mdcc&id=GALE|A267518279&v=2.1&it=r&sid=bookmark-HWRC&asid=99b99435

Strategic Management concepts in an organization

 

PAPER ASSIGNMENT #1

Using the textbook and 2 additional articles of your choice (use LIRN to research this), please write a 4 to 5-page paper that answers the following:

(1) Discuss 3 key strategic management concepts that you believe are useful to any manager in any organization. You can choose to describe any 3 concepts (except SWOT).

(2) Explain the strategic importance of each of these 3 concepts and why they are useful.

(3) Provide a few examples of real-life companies which have used these types of strategic management concepts to support their strategy.

Requirements:

  • Each individual paper should be 4 to 5 pages long, not counting cover page and bibliography.
  • The essay must be submitted in Microsoft Word “.doc” file format, and need to be formatted in proper APA 7th Edition style.
  • The cover page and reference page/s are not included in the above-stated page requirement. These should be in addition to page requirements.
  • Each paper requires a minimum of at least three outside peer-reviewed sources for your references.

o   Acceptable/credible sources include: Academic journals and books, industry journals, and the class textbook.

After reading “No One’s a Mystery” by Elizabeth Tallent, answer the questions below.  As always, students who respond fully, who use details from the readings, who have fresh and thoughtful insights, who interact with their classmates, and who use standard English will receive the higher grades.

  1. When looking at the work from a feminist perspective, what impression do you get of Jack, the female narrator, and their relationship as you read the first paragraph?  Make sure to reference specific character details from the text, rather than your own experiences or opinions, to support your answer.

For my eighteenth birthday Jack gave me a five-year diary with a latch and a little key, light as a dime. I was sitting beside him scratching at the lock, which didn’t seem to want to work, when he thought he saw his wife’s Cadillac in the distance, coming toward us. He pushed me down onto the dirty floor of the pickup and kept one hand on my head while I inhaled the musk of his cigarettes in the dashboard ashtray and sang along with Rosanne Cash on the tape deck. We’d been drinking tequila and the bottle was between his legs, resting up against his crotch, where the seam of his Levi’s was bleached linen-white, though the Levi’s were nearly new. I don’t know why his Levi’s always bleached like that, along the seams and at the knees. In a curve of cloth his zipper glinted, gold.